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today on Gloria Stillwells blog, reading through the spay info, it said that bitches spayed after the second heat have a 26% higher rate of mammary cancer.

That makes you want to spay, doesn't it. 26% that is like 1 in 4, about.

But earlier today in Dog World Magaizine, it said that mammary tumors occur in 3% of the population, and of those, one third are malignant. Ok, so now we have the cancer rate as 1 in 100.

So out of that 1 in 100 or 100 in 10,000, how many have been spayed before their second heat and how many spayed after their second heat?

In light of this information, if they are now saying that bitches' overall longevity increases on average the longer they have their ovaries, should we really be pushing to spay these girls before their first heat?

Are we spaying to remove the possibility of pregnancy, to eliminate the inconveniece of cycles, or for her health? And are we spaying when we do because this is what they tell us is best, and this is what we have done in the past?

I give Dog World Kudos for publishing this artical about this study, with references and all.
 

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For what it's worth, all the time I have worked in clinics we have never had a spayed female come in with mammary tumors. This is just my experience. The malignant tumors are nasty though and I believe tend to already have metastasized by the time we find them. I am having my girl spayed hopefully right before her second heat cycle so I can gain the benefit of increasing bone health but not so much increasing her chances of getting mammary cancer (the rate is 8% after the 1st heat cycle).
If you are interested, here is a discussion they are having on (veterinary) student doctor network that I've been following that is related to your question.
When to sterilize | Veterinary | Student Doctor Network
 

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I'm not reading a 26 percent higher risk does as one in four. I think it means if the risk is normally 1 percent it would now be 1.26 percent. At least that's the way I'm reading what you wrote!

When I spay it's usually for a combination of reasons, most of which you stated.
 

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the risk is 25-26% after the second heat cycle. So yes it is 1 in 4. I promise, this is what they teach in school ;)


the other thing I wanted to mention is that the majority of the public (and I'm not implying any specific person) is NOT capable/responsible enough to keep an intact female (or male for that matter). I volunteer at the city pound and it's horrible how many healthy adoptable dogs are euthanized (most are pitbulls). So for most people, when I graduate I will be getting them in to get spayed/neutered as soon as possible.
 

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Just stumbled across this:

Effects of Ovariohysterectomy on Reactivity in German Shepherd Dogs

By: H.H Kim ; S.C Yeon ; K.A Houpt ; H.C Lee ; H.H Chang ; H.J Lee
Format: Article
Year: 2006
Published in: The Veterinary Journal ,
Database: Science Direct (Elsevier)
This study investigated the effects of ovariohysterectomy on reactivity of German Shepherd dogs. Fourteen healthy dogs ranging in age from 5 to 10 months were assigned to an ovariohysterectomy or a sexually intact group. Their behaviours were digitally video recorded 4–5 months after treatment and analysed for treatment effects on reactivity. Responses to the approach of an unfamiliar human leading an unknown dog were assigned the following reactivity scores: severe reactivity, 3; moderate reactivity, 2; defensive or mild reactivity, 1; attentive or no reactivity, 0. Median reactivity scores in response to the approach of an unfamiliar human walking with an unknown dog were calculated for each observation period.Dogs in the ovariohysterectomized group showed more reactivity, and median reactivity scores were higher in the ovariohysterectomy group compared with those of the sexually intact group. Ovariohysterectomy of 5–10 month old German Shepherd bitches specifically, and perhaps bitches of any breed generally, may induce an increase in reactivity. Practitioners may benefit from recognizing that a range of behavioural changes may occur post-ovariohysterectomy.
 

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I don't buy the 26% thing. Molly was spayed before she had her first heat. She is perfectly healthy. Same with Simba(RIP), she was perfectly healthy, passed away peacefully, and in her favorite spot.=)

So is this and other studies trying to say spaying or neutering your dog is bad?

My friend will not spay her2 females(they are JRT/MinPin Mix) because she thinks it will hurt the dog(well duh no surgery is non painful, any surgery will be somewhat painful), and she says it costs too much. I don't even know if her dogs are vaccinated..... :/ should I ask her?

Well anyways, I will always have my dogs spayed/neutered.

ADD: I asked her. She said no, because of money. Her dogs are still a few months old, i think not even a year yet. She says they don't need it, and said Yeah I know they can get sick or whatever.I really think she doesn't care for them. I really don't think she knows the consequences of not vaccinating her dogs.
 

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huh? I think you are confused. The increase in mammary tumors is due to NOT SPAYING. So you saying that your spayed dogs are "perfectly healthy" isn't contributing much:), not to mention it's typically older dogs that present with these tumors.
 

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Just stumbled across this:

Effects of Ovariohysterectomy on Reactivity in German Shepherd Dogs

By: H.H Kim ; S.C Yeon ; K.A Houpt ; H.C Lee ; H.H Chang ; H.J Lee
Format: Article
Year: 2006
Published in: The Veterinary Journal ,
Database: Science Direct (Elsevier)
This study investigated the effects of ovariohysterectomy on reactivity of German Shepherd dogs. Fourteen healthy dogs ranging in age from 5 to 10 months were assigned to an ovariohysterectomy or a sexually intact group. Their behaviours were digitally video recorded 4–5 months after treatment and analysed for treatment effects on reactivity. Responses to the approach of an unfamiliar human leading an unknown dog were assigned the following reactivity scores: severe reactivity, 3; moderate reactivity, 2; defensive or mild reactivity, 1; attentive or no reactivity, 0. Median reactivity scores in response to the approach of an unfamiliar human walking with an unknown dog were calculated for each observation period.Dogs in the ovariohysterectomized group showed more reactivity, and median reactivity scores were higher in the ovariohysterectomy group compared with those of the sexually intact group. Ovariohysterectomy of 5–10 month old German Shepherd bitches specifically, and perhaps bitches of any breed generally, may induce an increase in reactivity. Practitioners may benefit from recognizing that a range of behavioural changes may occur post-ovariohysterectomy.

It needs to be pointed out that this study was done in puppies. You can't assume any of this holds true for dogs spayed at more than 10 months. Not to mention my pup is UNSPAYED at this point in time (almost 9 mths) and she has had a lot of issues with being very reactive to people vs. NONE of my spayed dogs I own now or have owned or that my family/friends own have had any issues at all.
 

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I would like to read that study, and perhaps see it redone. That paper which sites the 25% rate was published in 1969....
My experience is that this is about the rate I've seen in coming into the vet clinics where I have worked or volunteered. So I definitely believe it. Just because something is old doesn't make it obsolete, although it's nice to have something newer. There may be something out there newer, I'll take a look after class.
 

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We have people saying different things. Selzer originally says "26% higher rate" and then is talking about 1 in 4. Some people are saying it's "26% higher" and others are saying it's 26% of females.

I'm assuming it's "26% higher rate".
In which case, if the cancer rate is 1 in 100 in all dogs combined, then you can assume that some of those are unspayed...some are spayed. So in reality (combining both the dog world stats and the Stillwell stats), you're probably talking about 1 in 87 chance if the dog is not spayed before its second heat and 1 in 113 chance if the dog is spayed before its second heat. That's just assuming a "half are spayed" and "half aren't spayed" number. But in reality, I doubt that they are even....so it's more theoretical, but you get the point! RIGHT?! :)
 

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If YOU can take care of your own female, fine.

However, we don't know how anyone else can take care of their females. We just don't. As we have seen time and time again. And to give people we don't know the advice to wait, to me, is playing with fire. People have gotten so directive with it. And reference information and statistics and studies that may or may not be valid as we also see often. Telling people NOT to do it, not knowing who it is you are telling this to. I can tell you I will be careful. I can also tell you I am secretly married to George Clooney. It's the internet.

If you're out there cleaning up the messes and want to tell people to wait, fine.

If you are able to go into a kill shelter and walk up and down those aisles and still think it's okay to tell people to wait, fine. Not just once. Then pick the one dog you are able to save or help each time. If you can.

Put your money where your mouth is. Because your dog may live 3 months longer than my pediatric (make sure you know the difference between pediatric, before first heat, etc. too) speutered dog. But those dogs -millions of them- are most definitely dying. They wouldn't die if they weren't here, and they are here because their moms weren't spayed. That is the root cause. You can't argue that. Why their people let their moms get pregnant is a whole nother topic, but I really don't give a fig. They are just as dead.

I for one will take my "chances" and hope that the dogs I have here have good genetics because in terms of behavior -including reactivity- and health, that is about 80% of what impacts them.

I'll do my best on the other 20%.
 

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We have people saying different things. Selzer originally says "26% higher rate" and then is talking about 1 in 4. Some people are saying it's "26% higher" and others are saying it's 26% of females.

I'm assuming it's "26% higher rate".
In which case, if the cancer rate is 1 in 100 in all dogs combined, then you can assume that some of those are unspayed...some are spayed. So in reality (combining both the dog world stats and the Stillwell stats), you're probably talking about 1 in 87 chance if the dog is not spayed before its second heat and 1 in 113 chance if the dog is spayed before its second heat. That's just assuming a "half are spayed" and "half aren't spayed" number. But in reality, I doubt that they are even....so it's more theoretical, but you get the point! RIGHT?! :)
the rate is 26% overall.......not 26% higher than if spay after first heat cycle. does that make sense? So it's a 1 in 4 chance that your female will develop mammary tumors if you wait to spay until after the second heat cycle OVERALL. I PROMISE you these are the statistics, I am in vet school as we speak and this is what is taught. It's not that 1 in 100 GET cancer, that's the malignancy rate I believe. You can have benign tumors obviously--but that is still cancer.

also keep in mind that the rate goes up the longer you wait to spay.
 

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Ok, so why the different in what Dog World is reporting out (Selzer claims with references) verses what you say the actual rate is? To be honest, 1 in 4 seems QUITE high as an overall rate? Even malignant vs. benign. And I'm pro spay, so anything to fight for the cause! But that doesn't seem right to me. The study is really from 1969??? Or is there a more recent one?

If so, can you cite it? I'd like to read it.
 

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If YOU can take care of your own female, fine.

However, we don't know how anyone else can take care of their females. We just don't. As we have seen time and time again. And to give people we don't know the advice to wait, to me, is playing with fire.

If you're out there cleaning up the messes and want to tell people to wait, fine.

If you are able to go into a kill shelter and walk up and down those aisles and still think it's okay to tell people to wait, fine. Not just once. Then pick the one dog you are able to save or help each time. If you can.

Put your money where your mouth is. Because your dog may live 3 months longer than my pediatric (make sure you know the difference between pediatric, before first heat, etc. too) speutered dog. But those dogs -millions of them- are most definitely dying. They wouldn't die if they weren't here, and they are here because their moms weren't spayed. That is the root cause. You can't argue that. Why their people let their moms get pregnant is a whole nother topic, but I really don't give a fig. They are just as dead.

I for one will take my "chances" and hope that the dogs I have here have good genetics because in terms of behavior -including reactivity- and health, that is about 80% of what impacts them.

I'll do my best on the other 20%.

This is EXACTLY how I feel about it......like I mentioned before, the majority of the population is not responsible enough to own in intact dog of either gender, so I will be advising all of my future clients to s/n around 6 mths of age (this is the recommended age right now).
I live in GA right now and the south is notorious for euthanizing the majority of shelter dogs.....I volunteer with the city pound and it breaks my heart to see the dogs that I have spent time with, got to know their personalities, etc. be put to sleep.
 

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Ok, so why the different in what Dog World is reporting out (Selzer claims with references) verses what you say the actual rate is? To be honest, 1 in 4 seems QUITE high as an overall rate? Even malignant vs. benign. And I'm pro spay, so anything to fight for the cause! But that doesn't seem right to me. The study is really from 1969??? Or is there a more recent one?

If so, can you cite it? I'd like to read it.
you're right........it IS high! I will find you a study after my class is over (in about 50 min).
 

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I very much agree with spaying and neutering.

But my dog is not neutered, yet

I want to wait until he is 2 to neuter him.

I want him to be physically mature when I get him neutered.

He does not roam about, he does not leave my side, he is very well behaved. Also, all of the dogs around my house are males (odd) so I doubt he will contribute to an oops litter. BUT he is never let outside by himself, I am always out there with him.

Like I said he will be neutered within the next year.
 

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Introduction
Mammary tumors are the second most common group of neoplasms in dogs, following skin tumors (Fig. 1).6 They are the most common tumors in female dogs, comprising 52% of all neoplasms.3 Of the mammary gland tumors diagnosed in female dogs, 41 to 53% are diagnosed as malignant.7


Predisposition
The median age for diagnosis of mammary tumors in dogs is 10 years; neoplasms rarely occur in dogs < 4 years of age.7 At 6 years of age, the risk of developing a mammary tumor appears to increase markedly.6 It also appears that after 14 years of age, the incidence of benign mammary tumors levels off while the incidence of malignant cancer continues to increase.3
The development of mammary gland neoplasms appears to be hormone-dependent because the risk of developing a mammary tumor increases as the number of estrous (heat) cycles increases. The risk of developing mammary gland tumors is 0.05% if the dog is spayed prior to the first estrous cycle. The incidence of neoplasia increases to 8% if the dog is spayed prior the second estrous cycle and to 26% if spayed after the second estrous cycle. An increased incidence of tumor development also has been observed in dogs that received injectable progestins for the prevention of estrus.7
Normal mammary tissue and a majority of benign tumors express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. Less than 50% of mammary carcinomas express either of these receptors. This observation suggests that there is a loss of hormone dependency during transition to malignancy.
Breed predisposition in the development of mammary neoplasms has been reported but varies in different studies.5 Several of the spaniel breeds, poodles, and dachshunds have been reported to have an increased incidence of mammary neoplasia. Mammary gland tumors also have been observed in male dogs, but the incidence is 1% or less.7 Affected male dogs usually have a hormonal imbalance such as an estrogen-secreting Sertoli cell tumor of the testis.6
Clinical Signs
Mammary tumors can occur as single or multiple nodules within a mammary gland or chain. These nodules are present in > 50% of dogs with mammary neoplasms. The majority of mammary gland tumors occur in glands 4 and 5 (60-70%), possibly due to the fact that the two most caudal pairs of glands contain the most mammary tissue.6,7
Mammary tumors can metastasize to regional lymph nodes, such as the inguinal lymph nodes (Fig. 2). This can lead to afferent lymphatic blockage causing edema of the limbs (usually the rear limbs). Metastases can continue to the pudendal and the internal iliac lymph nodes causing pressure and stenosis of the colon.7 In some instances, retrograde growth of mammary gland carcinomas has extended as far as the stifle joint, obstructing lymph flow.3

Mammary carcinomas may exhibit rapid growth, doubling in size within a few weeks. However, the size and appearance of these neoplasms can vary greatly.6 Inflammatory carcinomas usually have diffuse involvement of multiple mammary glands. Edema, erythema, and firmness may be present and affected mammary glands may feel warm to the touch. Dogs with inflammatory carcinoma are more likely to have generalized weakness with anorexia and weight loss.1 Inflammatory carcinoma is often misdiagnosed as acute mastitis.7
Normal Mammary Gland
Canine mammary glands are located in the subcutaneous fat layer of the ventral body wall. Mammary glands actually constitute five pairs of modified sweat glands that run in bilaterally symmetrical rows from the cranial thorax to inguinal region. They are composed of secretory acini and a series of excretory ducts. During lactation, the glands undergo hypertrophy, produce colostrum, and eventually produce milk. Normal secretions from mammary glands consist of a large amount of protein and lipid droplets. This secretory product is usually of low cellularity, containing a few foam cells admixed with fewer lymphocytes and neutrophils. Foam cells are large, vacuolated epithelial cells with a round to oval, eccentrically placed nucleus. These cells resemble actived macrophages. A normal aspirate of mammary tissue frequently is acellular or consists only of blood. If mammary tissue is present, the secretory cells have a uniform size, a dark nucleus, and a moderate amount of basophilic cytoplasm (Fig. 3). These cells may be arranged in an acinar pattern. Ductal epithelial cells are arranged in sheets, myoepithelial cells are spindle shaped, and adipocytes are balloon-like in appearance. Lipid droplets also may be present in a normal fine-needle aspirate of mammary tissue.5

Diagnosis of Mammary Gland Tumors
Mammary gland tumors are difficult to diagnose by routine cytology. Furthermore, it can be very difficult to determine the malignant potential of mammary neoplasms cytologically, and histological evidence of malignancy does not always imply an aggressive clinical course of disease.5 Mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, adenomas (benign neoplasms), and well differentiated carcinomas (malignant neoplasms) can have a variable morphologic appearances (Fig. 4). Cytologic differentiation of these lesions may be difficult to impossible, leading to false positive and negative diagnoses of malignancy.9

In one study, approximately 50% of all the mammary tumors examined had an inconclusive cytological diagnosis. Also, approximately 50% of the benign tumors and 25% of the malignant tumors were given a concordant cytological diagnosis. More specifically, 8 of 17 mammary carcinomas were given a concordant cytological diagnosis, and two adenomas were misdiagnosed cytologically as carcinomas (Fig. 5).2

In another study, 147 skin neoplasms were evaluated cytologically using fine-needle aspiration. Of these neoplasms, 105 (74%) had the same cytological and histological diagnoses. However, mammary carcinomas were identified correctly in only 8 of 19 aspirates (42%). Two massed that were diagnosed cytologically as malignant neoplasms actually were benign.4
Cytologic material may be collected from a mammary gland for microscopic evaluation by expressing material directly from the gland or by fine-needle aspiration using a 22 gauge needle. If a fine-needle aspiration is performed, several aspirates should be obtained from the same tumor. Furthermore, aspirates should be obtained from all tumors because more than one type of tumor may be found and considerable tissue heterogeneity may occur within a given tumor. Cytologic aspirates should be taken from the periphery of the tumor because necrotic tissue may be found in the center of the mass. Aspirated material should be smeared on a slide and allowed to air dry before staining. A tissue imprint or direct tissue smear also may be obtained, but these types of preparations often reflect surface inflammation, lack cellularity, and give no indication of tissue architecture.7
Cytologic Criteria of Malignancy
In a study performed to cytologically differentiate benign from malignant tumors, ten criteria for malignancy were determined. Anisokaryosis (variation in nuclear size), or lack thereof in benign tumors, was found to be a significant criterion of malignancy. In benign conditions, 83 to 86% of the specimens lacked anisokaryosis. Tumor giant cells rarely were found in benign tumors. Although not commonly seen, nuclear or cytoplasmic membrane distortions were significant when observed. In addition, a high nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio was a significant criterion for malignancy for one of the cytologists in the study, but a poor indicator for the other cytologist. Irregular chromatin shape and size were used to help differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Nucleolar appearance was a helpful criterion in predicting malignancy, especially if macronucleoli were observed (Fig. 6). Variations in the number and shape of nucleoli also were a useful criteria of malignancy. Finally, parachromatin clearing was moderately significant cytologic criterion of malignancy (Table 1).

Table 1. Cytologic criteria of malignancy in mammary neoplasms.​
Anisocytosis (variable nuclear size) Nuclear giant forms Nuclear or cytoplasmic membrane distortions High nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio Irregular chromatin shape Variable chromatin size Presence of macronucleoli Variation in nucleolar number Variation in nucleolar shape Parachromtin clearing Poor indicators of malignancy included poor intercellular cohesion, abnormal nuclear shapes, nuclear molding, abnormal multinucleated cells, and degree of cellularity. Abnormal mitotic figures rarely were seen but were thought to be of significance when noted. Using these criteria to evaluate the mammary malignancy does not predict cancer-associated mortality.2
Note: All cytologic diagnoses of mammary neoplasia should be considered tentative until confirmed by surgical biopsy and histopathology.
Cytology of Malignant Mammary Gland Tumors
Adenocarcinoma - Cytologically, cells from adenocarcinomas may exfoliate in sheets or clusters. Individual epithelial cells contain a round to oval, eccentrically-placed nucleus and a moderate amount of basophilic cytoplasm. The cytoplasm may contain amorphous basophilic secretory product and/or vacuoles. Acinar arrangements of epithelial cells also may be observed.
Anaplastic carcinoma - These neoplasms yield very large, extremely pleomorphic epithelial cells that occur as single cells or as small clusters of cells. Unusual nuclear and nucleolar shapes may be seen. Multinucleated tumor cells and abnormal mitotic figures also may be observed.
Inflammatory carcinoma - Cytologically, specimens from inflammatory carcinoma have focal clusters of cells, occasionally accompanied by stromal collagen. These neoplasms are locally invasive with a very aggressive clinical course. Microscopically, cytologic specimens from these neoplasms contain large, pleomorphic, epithelial cells; many nondegenerate neutrophils; and macrophages.
Squamous cell carcinoma - Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland has a similar appearance to similar neoplasms that arise in the skin and other sites of the body. The nuclei of individual neoplastic cells range from small and pyknotic to large and round. Nucleoli are prominent and may be large and round to angular. The nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio is variable. Binucleated and multinucleated tumor cells may be observed occasionally. The cytoplasm appears moderate to deep blue and has a smooth texture with occasional vacuoles. These changes are associated with keritinization.
Malignant Mixed Mammary Tumor - Epithelial cells and individual spindleoid cells of mesenchymal origin can be observed in cytologic preparations. One of these cell populations usually will display nuclear and/or cellular criteria of malignancy. Occasionally, pink chondroid or osteoid matric may be observed.
Carcinosarcoma - Epithelial and mesenchymal populations of cells with criteria of malignancy are found in cytologic preparations.
Sarcoma - Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal cell origin. These neoplasms exfoliate poorly, yielding samples of low cellularity. In general, the cells are spindle to irregularly shaped, and are scattered individually or in small clumps. The cytoplasm is moderately to intensely basophilic with attenuated to indistinct cellular borders. Mammary sarcomas are rarely diagnosed cytologically in the dog.7
Treatment and Prognosis
Note: Treatment of animals should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian. Veterinarians should consult the current literature and current pharmacological formularies before initiating any treatment protocol. The initial workup of all dogs with mammary neoplasms should include a complete history including age, neuter status including age of neuter, date of last estrus or pregnancy, and any hormone treatment received. A thorough physical examination should be done.
Laboratory testing should include a complete blood cell count and serum biochemical profile. A coagulation profile should be performed in dogs suspected of having inflammatory carcinoma or that have a high risk of metastasis because of the associated risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Thoracic radiographs, including both lateral views, should be performed to check for signs of metastasis (Fig. 7). Metastasis can occur to local lymph nodes, so these nodes should be palpated and/or aspirated, if possible.7 Mammary glands 1, 2 and 3 drain to the axillary lymph nodes, while glands 4 and 5 drain to the inguinal lymph nodes. Owners of dogs that were spayed at > 3 years of age can assist in detecting mammary gland neoplasms by palpating the dog’s mammary gland chains once a month. However, most neoplasms must be at least 1cm in diameter to be palpable.3

The first choice of treatment for mammary gland neoplasia is surgical excision. The goal of surgery is to remove the entire neoplasm by the simplest procedure available. There is no difference in recurrence rate or survival time when a simple versus a radical mastectomy is performed. Also, it does not appear to be of benefit to spay the dog at the time of the mastectomy surgery. An effective chemotherapeutic protocol has not been reported. There is no reliable information on the value of radiation treatment, although it may be useful in dogs that have tumors that are too extensive for surgery.7
In one study of 33 dogs with mammary neoplasia, 5 dogs either died or were euthanized because of their disease, presumably within the first year of observation. One year after surgery, 19 dogs were still alive, 5 had been euthanized or died of causes unrelated to mammary cancer, and 4 dogs were lost to follow-up.2 This indicated that the overall death rate in a group of dogs with diagnosed mammary neoplasia was 15.2%.
References
1. Alenza P: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs. J Am Vet Assoc 219:1110-1114, 2001.
2. Allen SW, Prasse KW, Mahaffey EA: Cytologic differentiation of benign from malignant canine mammary tumors. Vet Pathol 23:649-655, 1986.
3. Brody RS, Goldschmidt MH, Roszel JR: Canine mammary gland neoplasia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 19:61-90, 1985.
4. Griffiths GL, Lumsden JH, Valli VEO: Fine needle aspiration cytology and histologic correlation in canine tumors. Vet Clin Pathol 13:13-17, 1984.
5.Henson KL: Reproductive System. In: Raskin RE, Meyer DJ (eds): Atlas of Canine and Feline Cytology. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 2001, pp. 277-288.
6.Moulton JE: Tumors in Domestic Animals, 3rd Edition. Berkley, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 518-54.3
7. Rutteman GR, Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG: Tumors of the Mammary Gland. In: Winthrow SJ, MacEwen EG (eds): Small Animal Clinical Oncology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 2000, pp. 450-467.
8. Shull RM, Madduz JM: Subcutaneous glandular tissue: Mammary, salivary, thyroid and parathyroid. In: Cowell RL, Tyler RD, Munkoth JH (eds): Diagnostic Cytology and Hemotology of the Dog and Cat. St. Louis, Mosby, 1999, pp. 90-92.
9. Tvedten H, Cowell R: Cytology of neoplasia and inflammatory masses. In: Williard M, Tvedten H, Turnwald G (eds): Small Animal Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1999, p. 328.
Acknowledgement
Image of Raven at the top of the paper is courtesy of owner Allison McCarthy.

 
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