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We have an about 4 yo or so GSD named Presley. He is neutered. We adopted him 3.5 months ago and the longer he’s here the more he’s testing us I think! We love him to death and will never give him up. We are his 3rd owners, + he was in a foster. So think he’s learned this is his forever home.
He does 3 things that we can’t seem to stop. Pulls when walking. And he’s strong! Barks at birds, and he’s loud, and when he’s in the backseat of our vehilces, he lunges and snaps at passing cars! He’s secured in back so he can’t get out, window up or partway down, still does it. And yesterday when he was in his yard with hubby and a car went by he chased it from his side of fence! This is a new thing. He loves rides, not anxiou.

Any ideas appreciate!
 

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When he pulls leash give quick tug (like with puppy) and then give him quick scruff. I read it in a professional dog training book. I don’t know what to do about other things, sorry.
 

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I would suggest a covered crate in the car.

He pulls because he doesn't know any better. You will probably need some sort of training tool to teach him like a prong collar. But you still have to teach because they can learn to pull even on a prong.

Do not follow when he pulls. Change direction. Reward when he is coming toward you and leash is slack. Keep changing directions constantly so he has to look to you to see where next. Long straight lines are your enemy when trying to teach loose leash walking.

What are his exercise outlets? I think leash walking is best taught to a dog who is not super pent up
 

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I like to switch back and forth between a gentle leader and a flat collar for pulling. Once he starts pulling, he seems to feel rewarded by the sensation of the flat collar against his strong neck.

Every time he pulls we either:
1. Do a quick u-turn so we are heading the opposite way from that which he was pulling.
2. I stand perfectly still with gentle yets firm tugs on the leash to move him back enough so there is slack in the leash. I don't move again until he gives up on what he was pulling towards. Often, he comes back and sits in front of me and lets out a long resigned sigh.

During and after the walk, I like to do several 'go plays' so he learns that a polite walk with the slow human will earn him some time to go and be a curious dog.

The downside of this approach is that it can take forever to actually get anywhere. The first time, it might take 30 minutes to get down the driveway :) With consistency, it got better for us.

For the barking in the car, we went and parked on the far side of big box stores and just chilled out. Every time a person or car came near I distracted and rewarded. If I was too slow to distract, I gently corrected and redirected. Now he can happily sit in his back seat at a gas station while I put in gas and go in the store to pay. I don't 'need' to go in to pay, but it seems to be a good exercise to leave him alone for a minute or two.

We tend to take our pets for walks or take them to the park for exercise. In the early phases, they might need to be good and tired in order to mind their manner on a walk or car ride.

As @Thecowboysgirl said, make sure he has plenty of exercises prior to these sessions. Even at four, an energetic dog's enthusiasm for life can make it hard for them to listen and behave during calm activities.
 

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Every time he pulls we either:
1. Do a quick u-turn so we are heading the opposite way from that which he was pulling.
2. I stand perfectly still with gentle yets firm tugs on the leash to move him back enough so there is slack in the leash. I don't move again until he gives up on what he was pulling towards. Often, he comes back and sits in front of me and lets out a long resigned sigh.

During and after the walk, I like to do several 'go plays' so he learns that a polite walk with the slow human will earn him some time to go and be a curious dog.

The downside of this approach is that it can take forever to actually get anywhere. The first time, it might take 30 minutes to get down the driveway :) With consistency, it got better for us.
I don't swap tools back and forth. I like the consistency and clarity of one tool. But different tools for different dog / handler teams. I found that the stop and start or stop and turn method works but it does mean you aren't going anywhere for awhile. I liked to turn on some fun music with a good beat (for me, something celtic worked great) helped me walk at a nice pace and staved off the boredom of stopping and starting. It was as punishing for me as it was for the dog to keep stopping.
Keep making pulling unsatisfactory. When you stop, if he comes back don't start walking again right away. Hold for a count of 10 otherwise you'll just end up dancing around and not really teaching your dog that pulling means No-Go.
The car whining, I totally agree. Take a trip to no where or sit in the car and drink a cup of coffee and enjoy a good book. Not every trip goes to the park. I sometimes sit in the car with my dogs while a family member does an errand or two.
if your dog is lunging and barking his fool head off, you'll need to correct this. That means punishment. Not sure the best way to go about that but you do want to layer on praise and reward for calm behavior afterwards. Again, pause for 15 seconds or so to reward the calm. Otherwise dogs can chain the "bad" and "good" behaviors together. Bark- sit quietly- get treat. Not a good chain.
If it is prey / hunt drive that is influencing this behavior see if you can turn that around for good. Teach him to hunt for things around the house, things you have hidden. Teach the rewards of fetching. Search out some good videos about tug play. Then tug becomes a reward for good behavior, like walking nicely on a leash.

But mostly get a good face to face trainer / mentor. Sometimes a few small changes in how we do things can make a difference. We miss those small things but someone outside ourselves can point them out.
 

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I use a gentle leader to walk my dog, and it has made walks much more pleasant. He doesn’t pull with it on. There are other brands that make the same sort of thing; it’s a sort of head harness that goes around his nose with the leash attached to a ring under his chin so it tightens around his nose when he pulls. It did take a week or so for him to get used to it and walk without acting silly, and he still rubs his nose along the lawn when we get home, but he enjoys his walks, and I can control him and don’t have my arm pulled from its socket.

As for the barking at cars, I will let others help you, since I don’t have any experience with that.
 
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