Also what is the common way of making her stay by my side at all times. Is it the same as teaching "heel"?
The heel command can mean different things to different people. I expect my dogs to walk politely with me on leash and have specific criteria that I've trained for a loose leash walk, but I really don't use "heel" because it's not as strict as what is usually meant - dog's head in line with the seam of your pants, either with or without constant focus on you.
I take my dogs out for long leashed hikes on paved paths and dirt trails at a nearby regional park, which can vary from 3-10 miles. To me, it's not realistic to expect a perfect tight heel for hours on end, especially with them paying attention to me the entire time. This is supposed to be enjoyable for them too!
I start out with a young puppy off leash around the house. I lure with a treat, I teach them to target my hand, which they can then follow. I do quick turns in both directions, having them stop and sit whenever I stop (I train the sit by luring the head up with a treat, marking and giving the treat when puppy's butt hits the ground). I do it both inside and outside in the dog run, which is a long narrow area down the side of the house.
I don't have a training schedule for puppies, but I do spend a lot of time working with them. It's really more of a list of things that I work on in no particular order, usually several at once. A technique I really like is called "capturing" behaviors, which is basically catching your dog doing something on their own and rewarding them for it. So rather than asking my puppy to do something when it has no idea what the word means yet, I wait until puppy does it on her own (such as "down"), and then I mark it, either verbally ("yes!") or with a clicker, and toss a treat. The more I reinforce that behavior, the more the puppy offers it up, and then I can begin to name it, putting it on cue. This works great for sits and downs, eye contact (the "watch" or "look") command, and coming towards me ("come").
Halo came home at 10 weeks old and started puppy class 3 weeks later. She was pretty distracted that first week, but by week #2 she did so well that after class one of the other women came up to me and asked how I got her to focus on me like that.
At that point I had spent so much time rewarding her for eye contact that she would sit or lay down and stare at me, hoping to get a treat, lol. Since you can't teach your puppy anything unless you first have her attention, that's one of the most important things you can work on.
I love this game for teaching impulse control, and it's totally appropriate for young puppies. I spent some time every day doing this with Halo, using part of her lunch kibble. I added eye contact too, so she had to back away from the food in my hand and look at me, but I worked up to that: