Patricia McConnell's For the Love of a Dog and The Other End of the Leash
Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs
If you want books on learning theory in dogs ("why we train them the way we do"), most training books will have a couple of prefatory chapters explaining why that writer thinks that approach is most effective for dogs. Some are scientifically grounded, most aren't. It's easy to find writings that will reinforce your worldview, whatever it may be; it's considerably harder to recommend a single source that's founded on good research, neutral, and even-handed. Most people who care enough to write books on dog training have very definite points of view, which complicates things.
Jean Donaldson's "Train Your Dog Like a Pro" is a little technical and a little polemical (spoiler: she doesn't like force/compulsion in training, although she is quick to acknowledge that it does work, as well as how and why) but IMO is the best all-in-one breakdown for what works and what doesn't and why.
Honestly, though, my recommendation would be to read widely and critically. There is a lot out there (I've managed to overflow a pretty big bookshelf with my stuff, and I'm reasonably selective with my purchases) and the more you read, the more you get a sense of what is and isn't actually worthy of belief.
ARCHMX TDCH Pongu the Insane, CD-C, RE, RL1X6, RL2X5, RL3X2 (GSD mix, b. Apr 2010)
Crookytail the Tigerwuff, RL1, ITD (Akita mix, b. Jan 2011)