Before having started online researches, the only way I know about training a dog is the balanced way - +Reinforcement for teaching new tricks, and correction only when necessary (which is basically giving reprimanding commands and hitting if necessary).
In the past, I've owned a medium size dog and she was really well behaved. If she misbehaved, a reprimanding command was mostly enough, and hitting was almost never needed and if it was ever needed, just a slap or two on the back leg without much force was enough.
But with my current puppy, things are very different. Hitting is play pawning for him, he simply doesn't seem to feel pain at all. I could yell, hit, act really intimidating and he would just get excited with all the party or just defy me. This made me review the training method I've always known, and lead me to start researching online, seeking for less confrontational methods (escalating my force or intimidation is not an option for me).
Right now, my "philosophy" of training is still about balance - +Reinforcement for teaching new tricks, set him up for success as much as I can and correction only when necessary. But hitting and being too physical confrontational is not an option anymore, and I'm more about being firm and calm when it comes to correction. I would still grab the back of his neck and lift his flat collar (suffocating him for a sec) and say "NO" with a reprimanding tone, but it is all done calmly and only when necessary (if he doesn't listen to my "NO" when I really need him to stop, and I can't time him out or redirect him). This way he does listen.
But I'm still trying to figure out more appropriate and safer ways for corrections, and if possible, hopefully find some positive method that can counter certain situations.
I guess that people don't feel secure enough to talk about their correction methods online, since people can become judgmental about it, and there's also the danger of someone inexperienced implementing the same method wrongly and ending up hurting their dogs. I wouldn't want to teach someone that is really inexperienced and not good with communicating with dogs to use aversive methods, since with these people the dangers of wrong implementation is greater (they might probably get bitten and make the situation worse, or physically or psychologically damage their dogs).
About the right intensity of correction methods, it really depends on the confidence of a dog - some dogs are just too soft that a neutral "NO" is enough and any more than that could scare them badly, while some requires stronger ways that won't even make a difference for them.