Hip dysplasia is not a congenital defect:By Carol Beuchat PhD - German Shepherd Dog Forums
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post #1 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-20-2016, 11:02 PM Thread Starter
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Hip dysplasia is not a congenital defect:By Carol Beuchat PhD

Source: The 10 most important things to know about canine hip dysplasia - The Institute of Canine Biology

Hip dysplasia is a hot topic in dogs, if it's possible to stay "hot" for 50 years. Researchers have been working hard for decades looking for solutions, and breeders have been doing their best to reduce the risk of producing affected puppies. But still the problem remains.

There are some simple things we could do to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia now if we understand a few basic things. Here are the 10 most important things you need to know.

1) All puppies are born with perfectly normal hips
Hip dysplasia is not a congenital defect; it is not present at birth. Multiple studies have demonstrated that all normal puppies are born with "perfect" hips; that is, they are "normal" for a newborn with no signs of dysplasia. The structures of the hip joint are cartilage at birth and only become bone as the puppy grows. If a puppy is going to develop hip dysplasia, the process begins shortly after birth.
This is the hip joint of a 1 day old puppy. The cartilage tissue does not show up on an x-ray until the minerals are deposited that form bone. Proper development of the joint depends on maintaining the proper fit between the head of the femur and the socket (acetabulum).

"The hip joints of all dogs are normal at birth. The joints continue to develop normally as long as full congruity is maintained between the acetabulum and the femoral head... The acetabular rims are stimulated to grow by mild traction applied by the joint capsule and gluteal muscles attached along their dorsal borders, and from pressure by the femoral heads upon the articular surfaces... The morphologic characteristics of the complex hip structure show that biomechanical behavior is the prime influence in the growth of this joint." (Riser 1985)





**The rest of the article may be read at the link. Post was edited for both copyright and because of length of the article. ADMIN**

Last edited by lhczth; 09-21-2016 at 12:01 PM. Reason: Too long, copyright
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post #2 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-20-2016, 11:14 PM
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Interesting that it says that puppies should not be fat, but I did not see were they said to keep puppies lean or underweight.
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post #3 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-21-2016, 01:52 AM
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So, if there is deformity in the rear legs (tibia) at birth, that would be a huge contributing factor to hip dysplasia?
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post #4 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-21-2016, 08:11 AM
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When my golden got hip Dysplasia I questioned the genetic part of it because there was no history of it pretty much anywhere. I don't know where my GSD with hip Dysplasia came from so I can't say genetics or not. Now what I do know is that neither puppy was over-weight(all my dogs are kept slim), we didn't do any strenuous exercises and they were on a high quality kibble. The GSD is tall and she grew upwards consistently. There was no injuries when they were smaller. So I keep going back to what happened before I got them? They were both about 12 weeks old, so if I got them at 8 weeks, would the end result be different? I don't know.

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post #5 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-21-2016, 09:14 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by llombardo View Post
When my golden got hip Dysplasia I questioned the genetic part of it because there was no history of it pretty much anywhere. I don't know where my GSD with hip Dysplasia came from so I can't say genetics or not. Now what I do know is that neither puppy was over-weight(all my dogs are kept slim), we didn't do any strenuous exercises and they were on a high quality kibble. The GSD is tall and she grew upwards consistently. There was no injuries when they were smaller. So I keep going back to what happened before I got them? They were both about 12 weeks old, so if I got them at 8 weeks, would the end result be different? I don't know.
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post #6 of 31 (permalink) Old 09-22-2016, 07:30 AM
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If the dog has shallow sockets, or underdeveloped femurs, are they telling me this is environmentally induced as opposed to born that way?
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post #7 of 31 (permalink) Old 10-01-2016, 08:49 AM
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'Congenital' means 'present at birth'. By itself, it does not imply whether or to what degree a trait is due to genetic predisposition or environmental factors. Researchers agree that both contribute to the development of HD.

Quick summary of the argument Carol Beuchat made based on the available literature:

HD is not congenital, i.e. pups are born with well fitting hip joints. HD develops due to laxity of the joints, a ligament issue:
"The teres ligament should hold the head of the femur securely in the socket of the growing puppy while the muscles that will support the hip develop and grow stronger. But in some puppies, the ligament shows evidence of damage before they are even a month old (Riser 1985). The abnormal forces on the femur and acetabulum that are caused by joint laxity result in the trauma that causes hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis of the hip."

Among the environmental factors identified to contribute to joint laxity:
- Slippery surface of the whelping box (e.g. kiddie wading pools without added carpet) due to the movements it forces the pups to make
- Nutrition
- Body weight
- Exercise

A multifactorial genetic component is undisputed among researchers. Using the ZW in mate selection is crucial.
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post #8 of 31 (permalink) Old 10-01-2016, 06:30 PM
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So where do malformed femurs come from if HD isn't congenital? I'm confused!
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post #9 of 31 (permalink) Old 10-01-2016, 06:50 PM
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Cliff one study that I read recently suggested that the ball and sockets change shape as they are injured by bruising and (ths mentioned more than once) micro tears and repairs .
The ligaments , cartilage and muscle were what held everything together .
This is why Penn-Hip test for laxity (ligament integrity) .
Billinghurst has a section with advice on limiting exercise of young dogs to self selected natural movement - no abrupt stops and stops and twists and turns .

A geneticist friend (senior research scientist) can go in and delete deleterious genes - DM for example , because that has one location . HD is scattered throughout the genetic makeup - and , in his findings , has come to the conclusion that epigenetics , the response of genes (DNA) to outside influences - chemicals (teratogenic) , food/nutrition, exercise , etc etc . make it impossible to eliminate .
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post #10 of 31 (permalink) Old 10-02-2016, 10:11 AM
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Oh, I'm well aware that injury and environment can affect the physical form of femur/sockets, but having seen hundreds of X-rays over the years, it is apparent that in some cases the formation naturally of the socket and or femur was malformed and not due to trauma and or environment.....it would seem to me to be congenital just like congenital defects that occur in other mammals and can be seen before delivery. Maybe I'm missing something🤔.
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