From the article I posted above:
Quote:CLINICAL TRIAL OF ESTER-C POLYASCORBATE from The Norwegian Veterinary Journal Volume 102 August/September 1990.
POLYASCORBATE (C-Flex), AN INTERESTING ALTERNATIVE BY PROBLEMS IN THE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT APPARATUS IN DOGS. BY: Geir Erik Berge, Gronuddalen Dyreklinikk, Oslo, Norway.
Ever since Dr. Lind in the year 1740 discovered that juice from citrus fruits could prevent scurvy in sailors, Vitamin C has had a natural place in human nutrition.
All species except primates, guinea pigs, certain types of bats, salmon varieties, certain insects and shellfish have enzyme systems that convert glucose to ascorbic acid (1). Vitamin C has hence received little attention within veterinary medicine.
The assumption that animals at all times are capable of producing sufficient quantities themselves is however probably not a valid one.
Ascorbic acid plays a role in a large number of biochemical reactions in the metabolism of collagen and in the immune system as well as in a series of redox reactions.
Also metabolites of Vitamin C are reactive components. Today's research gives these substances the attention they deserve. The conversion of ascorbic acid into these metabolites is believed to be dependent on the intra-cellular ascorbic acid concentration. Under certain circumstances, like infections, traumatic or physical stress, larger amounts of ascorbic acid and its metabolites are being consumed by various tissues.
Under these conditions, it is very well possible that the animal's own production cannot cope with the demand of supplying all tissues with optimal levels of ascorbic acid.
Ascorbic acid is an acidic, water soluble molecule which after ingestion is very rapidly excreted through the kidneys. Ascorbic acid has pka 4.17.
The ideal Vitamin C would be a pH neutral molecule that would not cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract, that is rapidly absorbed from the gut, that is more slowly excreted, and that has the ability to cross cell membranes in a more efficient way than does ascorbic acid, so that higher intra-cellular levels can be reached.
Such a Vitamin C (classified as a polyascorbate) has been developed and patented by Inter-Cal Corporation of Prescott, Arizona under the trademark C-Flex.
Polyascorbate is a complex mixture of calcium ascorbate molecules and the above mentioned metabolites. In water solution the polyascorbate is pH neutral, which influences the osmolarity in the intestinal tract less than does ascorbic acid, which has a pH 2.4. It is absorbed faster in both animals and humans.
Furthermore, slower excretion and higher intra-cellular concentrations are achieved. Clinical studies suggest that the metabolites created during C-Flex's unique manufacturing process are of vital importance in its increased ability to penetrate cell membranes and thus give higher intra-cellular ascorbate absorption.
Robert Davis, PhD., at the Pennsylvania College of Podiatric medicine observed that polyascorbate lessened both symptoms and pain and stiffness in arthritis patients (5).
The target for this study was to observe the effect of the polyascorbate in dogs with clinical symptoms of chronic inflammation processes in joints, skeleton and muscles, as routinely treated with antiphlogistics and corticoids
MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried out at Groruddalen, Dyreklinikkover a six month period in 1988. One hundred (100) dogs of different breeds and ages were given C-Flex approx. 30mgs/kg body weight three (3) times a day, orally.
All treatments were given because owners saw the animal's symptoms of limping, lameness, limited movement ability and pain. Diagnosis was made on the basis of journals, clinical evaluation and, if necessary, X-rays. The effect was measured as changes in symptoms partly by new clinical assessment and partly by owners reporting their evaluation of treatment. The effect was measured after seven (7) to ten (10) days, more than six (6) weeks and after approx. six (6) months.
A series of both acute and chronic ailments were treated. With acute problems and conditions that rapidly change, it is difficult to distinguish between effect of treatment and other influential factors. Such patients were therefore excluded from the study. One has hence limited the study to observe effect of:
* symptoms that have a known cause and that are permanent, and
* where symptoms had been stable over a minimum of six (6) weeks, and
* must be assumed to persist without treatment
Dogs with the following ailments were included:
*Older disc prolapse with permanent secondary changes
*Senile wear changes in support and movement tissue