Was it a cooked chicken bone from the garbage? Or a raw uncooked bone? My dogs are on a raw diet and eat bones all the time. If the bone is uncooked, it won't do anything to their insides, normally. Cooked bones are very bad for them. If your dog threw it back up, and the bone looks in tact, then just monitor him and hopefully he will be OK. It's when they chew up the cooked bones, breaking them into shards that can pierce their insides. This usually requires surgery and can cost thousands of dollars.
My dogs will sometimes chew up bones and swallow pieces too big to digest, like the knot on a turkey drumstick, and they will throw up the large bone mass 2-3 days later. They have never been harmed by doing this, but again, the bones are raw, not cooked.
Hope this helps.