Here's a neat article:
How Technology from 30 Years Ago is Helping Military Dogs Perform Better Now | Animal Behavior and Medicine Blog | Dr. Sophia Yin, DVM, MS
They do use aversives - but less than 1/1000th of a time.
Strangely (never thought it was strange until I read how many dogs my kind of methods have killed apparently) I have/had dogs who would be dead and have not used positive punishment with them in terms of any aversives stronger than a verbal, or as in the article above if they put themselves or someone else at risk (rare and usually just dog to dog posturing that needs to be body bumped - something that happens when you live with more than 2 dogs integrated as a pack). So it can be done, easily and naturally. I come from a background of working with people/kids, so using strong aversives is not an option, and it is second nature for me to pick behavioral interventions that are clear and that work. I know it works, I have a pack of dogs and former foster dogs that show it.
If people want to train dogs their way, that's their business, just getting tired of reading all over the place on this board that the way that many of the rest of train, is wrong, dangerous, and doesn't work.