Wow! You didn't even give the dog a chance to settle in. It sounds like he was confused and completely shut down which is not at all uncommon for a dog going to a new home. You were expecting way too much. And it sounds like the rescue didn't prepare you correctly.
There are all kinds of posts on here about puppies and dogs who have come home and been really out of it initially. I fostered dogs for years and almost every one took several weeks to acclimate. One of the gsds I adopted, Rafi, had no personality for the first couple of days and would walk in circles and whine incessantly on car rides. One of my other dogs was afraid to pee in a new place and went in the house, that is also not uncommon.
I hope the rescue gets him checked for a UTI and into a caring foster home and the next person who adopts this dog gives him some time to acclimate.
Ruth & the 4 Legged Rescue Gang
Rafi the malaroo
Gio & Varda, the krazy kittens
....In my heart: