1. Repeat. Patience patience patience... that's what training is all about. IF he knows what you are asking and refuses..... "No... -command-". If he needs a little help, do so (in example... with the sit, maybe bring the toy or treat over his head, helping him to automatically put his but down.. and praise him). But, honestly, if he ignored multiple times over and over... it's time to start at the basics again as a "refresher course". Pups sometimes need this. If you're only working in an area that is very distracting, try to work somewhere quiet first. Distraction is good to add later, but for a pup learning the ropes, it's best to make it a nice quiet calm room first.... this way you have his full attention. He's more likely to pick it up.... pups are like children, there's NO way you're teaching a young child math at a playground where all his friends are. Or doing a home schooling session at Disney. Later, you'll be able to add that in and it will definitely help to "lock down" the commands.
2. You'll know when you've removed "helper aids"... so no more lifting the toy for sit, or lowing the toy for down (or if you use treats.. the same thing), you're not helping him to understand... if you can repeat the command without aiding the dog I'd say about 6 times or more.... he's got it. If you continuously have to remind, or help... then go back to basics. Eventually you can start weaning off the aids. Every dog takes a different amount of time.
3. If at all possible, please at least keep a long lead on him. This is to keep him safe and others. Pups are pups... heck even older dogs... are capable of giving you the bird and doing what they want. Especially in drive (see a cat, squirrel, dog they don't like, etc). I understand the reasons, but do the best you can to keep yours safe as much as possible. At least with a long line, you can catch him if he goes running off, or reel him in if you see a possible dangerous situation brewing up. Don't allow those few seconds either. Correct with the leash, and gain his attention elsewhere. If you allow him to sit and stare... it's going to start building into something worse. Don't allow this, immediately re-direct him. Be proactive.... if you see a dog coming in, or a person walking by... immediately get him to focus on something else. If he doesn't bark, or doesn't react, praise. If this gets worse, you'll really want to see a professional though. What I suggested worked for my dogs... but, I don't know exactly what's going on, what your dog does, what his behavior is.. etc. Without a video and being there to witness him, it's hard to say. But, for now, redirection and a long line would be a great idea.
4. I forgot his age (sorry
), with pups just starting out with commands I really only do (depending on age and each ind. dog) about 2-3 commands a day. Start easy... then work up the ladder. If the dog has decent work ethic and drives, you may be able to do 2 short training sessions a day (if not.. probably 1).... I wouldn't work on too much too long. Keep it active, keep it moving. Don't stop and let the drive (and attention) drop constantly. (When Storm was 2-3 months, we only did two 5 min. sessions a day.... then worked up from there. Right now at 1.5, I don't do more than 20min with her, and that's where her threshold lies... all dogs are different. I never let me sessions end too late when the dogs already dropped focus, energy, and drives.... we end on a good note and her wanting more.)
5. Recalls are tough to actually get "reliable". In fact, most dogs don't have a true reliable recall. Out of my 3, Duke is it. I could call Duke off a bite on the field right as he's launching.... he's solid. However, he's 3.5yrs old, an "I'll do anything to please you" type, and we worked on that with lots of repetition and patience since I got him at 2. It takes a while, and it takes a solid foundation. What I said about the long line above will help you. Ellis is always great too for suggestions. Also, just as a tip... NEVER correct a dog for coming back to you... regardless what they did previous. If they run off, and like 20min later decide to come back.. don't correct. That'll only make the dog afraid of coming back to you, thinking every time he'll be corrected and you'll be angry at him. Good boy for coming back..... start back on the basics again. For my dogs, I make it a game. It's always a fun time when they come back to me. With Duke.. when he'd come back, I'd have the tug ready for him to grab, and we'd have a little tugging match. Later on when he got the idea... we cleaned it up and introduced the front and center, and then back to basic position (sit at the left side of handler). In the beginning just keep it up beat and fun to do. Much more fun than running off!!
6. That's a loaded and vague question. There's different types of corrections, and different times to use them.... Though, if I'm just using the umbrella word of "correction".... a dog should be corrected when they get/do something wrong. You correct, have them do it the right way so they understand, and reward... rinse and repeat. If you don't always catch it, or let them get away with it.... that loses your consistency, and the dog will never really learn.
7. Leash training 101. If a dog pulls, start back with the basics. Foundations are everything. With mine, if they pull... they don't get to go where they want. I'll either turn them around completely in a fast pace and walk the other way every single time.... OR I'll simply stop and they have to sit, focus on me.... and we continue our walk when they relax. With the young dogs.. I tried making the walks more interactive too and not mind numbing (or they'd just find bad things to focus on), I would add commands randomly. I'd stop and make them sit and focus on me, or add in a simple sit, down, stand.... I'd add in "fuss"/heel for a few steps, or "here" and make them front and center... etc. That worked well with mine, and with those few things... mine stopped pulling.
Everything with a pup takes patience. It won't happen overnight... but if you're consistent, and really really keep up with working with him... he'll get it. Just remember to not rush, let the pup learn and grow at a pace that's good or him. If the foundation is bad, it'll all crumble eventually. This part of training is the most important no matter what you're training or for what purpose.... sporting, family dog, working dog... etc. So just make sure you're not skipping ahead too fast or asking for too much too soon.
Also, these are just suggestions for what worked with my dogs.... each dog is different, each handler is different.. etc. It may help, it may not. I suggest trying them out, and what others say if it sounds reasonable... and see what works best for you two. If it doesn't, try something else. Dog training is not black and white, it's not 1 answer. No one will ever be 100% correct, and not everyone has to be wrong. With that said... Ellis is great. Leerburg posts a LOT of great little clips of him on youtube, and they are certainly worth watching for some suggestions.